Carol Falender, Ph.D.
Competency-based Clinical Supervision
With the recognition that clinical supervision is a distinct professional practice comes the necessity for formal training to competency for supervisors. Competencies are available for all mental health professions. Competency-based clinical supervision is evolving quickly. A reflective, mindful approach, competency-based clinical supervision is strength-based, focused on upholding values and ethics of the profession, and devoted to enhancing supervisee competence, professionalism, and development while monitoring and gatekeeping for the protection of the client and the profession. This approach is metatheoretical which means it applicable with every supervision model (e.g., developmental, psychotherapy model-based). Competency-based supervision provides an intentional, systematic approach to supervision practice.
The competency-based approach entails self-assessment of competencies which then serve as the beginning point for goals and tasks of supervision, development of the supervisory relationship, identifying relationship strain, ruptures, and knowing how to repair them. The framework incorporates and infuses multicultural diversity into all its multiple aspects for all participants. Competencies also include monitoring, giving ongoing corrective as well as positive feedback, formatively and summatively, evaluation strategies, legal and ethical considerations, prevention and ways to address supervisee vicarious traumatization, self-care, and management of supervisees who do not meet competence standards. Through use of a competency-based frame, meta-theoretical reflective strategies for practice are modeled.
Our definition of clinical supervision is "Supervision is a distinct professional activity
• In which education and training aimed at developing science-informed practice are facilitated through
• A collaborative interpersonal process
• It involves observation, evaluation, feedback, facilitation of supervisee self-assessment, and acquisition of knowledge and skills by instruction, modeling, and mutual problem-solving.
• Building on the recognition of the strengths and talents of the supervisee, supervision encourages self-efficacy.
• Supervision ensures that clinical (supervision) is conducted in a competent manner in which ethical standards, legal prescriptions, and professional practices are used to promote and protect the welfare of the client, the profession, and society at large (Falender & Shafranske, 2004, p. 3).
- "Clinical Supervision: The Missing Ingredient" by Carol A. Falender, Pepperdine University
PDF Link - Clinical Supervision: The Missing Ingredient
- Recipient of the 2018 Distinguished Contributions to Education and Training in Psychology from the American Psychological Association, August, 2018
- Goodyear, R. K. & Falender, C. (2017). How psychologists can maximize their effectiveness as supervisors: Eight essential conditions. ¿Cómo pueden psicólogos/as maximizar su efectividad como supervisores/as? Ocho condiciones esenciales. La supervisión: Perspectivas y horizontes nacionales e internacionales - Edición Especial sobre Supervisión - Revista Psicólogos.
- Falender, C. A., Goodyear, R. Duan, C., Bang, K., del Pilar Graziozo, M., Jia, X.,Kagnici, Y., Al- Darmaki, F., Humeidan, M., & Partridge, S. New horizons for global supervision practice: Small world...Or is it? Submitted for review.
- Falender, C. A., & Shafranske, E. P. (2017) Competency-based clinical supervision: Status, opportunities, tensions, and the future. Australian Psychologist. doi:
- Goodyear, R., Falender, C. A., & Rousmaniere, T. (2017). Ethical Issues Regarding supervision and consultation in private practice. In S. Walfish, J. Zimmerman, & J. Barnett (Eds). Handbook of Private Practice, pp. 443-458. Oxford University Press.
Carol Falender, Ph.D.
in the State of California PSY 5703
1158 26th Street, #189
Santa Monica, California 90403
310-451-1236 (Phone and Fax)